Technologies

scia Systems offers a variety of ion beam and plasma processes for etching, coating and cleaning of substrates. Every technology. Due to their characteristic properties, each technology has both advantages and disadvantages for specific applications. We will be pleased to help you find the right process for your application. Our technology portfolio includes the following processes:

ION BEAM ETCHING (IBE) / ION BEAM MILLING (IBM)

Ion beam milling uses a broad beam of positive charged ions, (e.g. Ar+), to physically etch material from the wafersubstrate by the ion bombardment. The beam with a typical diameter larger than the substrate size ensures a sufficient removal uniformity and throughput. During the milling process, the wafersubstrate could rotates for best uniformity.

 

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REACTIVE ION BEAM ETCHING (RIBE)

The reactive ion beam etching uses the technology of ion beam milling or ion beam trimming and adds additional reactive gases into the ion beam source. The plasma activation of the reactive gases leads to a chemical and physical etching of the substrate material, which helps to increase throughput, material selectivity and trench angles of patterned surfaces.

 

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CHEMICALLY ASSISTED ION BEAM ETCHING (CAIBE)

The chemically assisted ion beam etching uses the technology of ion beam milling or ion beam trimming and adds additional, reactive gases close by the substrate typically by a gas ring. This can lead to increased etching rate or higher material selectivity of the etching process.

 

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ION BEAM TRIMMING (IBT)

Ion beam trimming is a special type of IBE, using a small beam of positive charged ions, (e.g. Ar+), to physically etch material from the substrate by the ion bombardment. The beam with a typical diameter of 7 … 15 mm ensures a sufficient lateral resolution and a high throughput. During the trimming process a focused broad ion beam moves in a meander-shaped pattern across the substrate surface. By altering the local dwell time it is possible to precisely adjust the material thickness and hence e.g. device properties like the frequency of an acoustic filter (SAW, BAW).

 

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ION BEAM FIGURING (IBF)

Ion beam figuring is an ion beam trimming process applied on optical substrates. It is a polishing error correction by a scanning ion beam and dwell time control to adjust the surface form error of curved substrates such as aspherical lenses to an order of precision, which is not accessible with any conventional polishing technologies.

 

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ION BEAM SPUTTERING (IBS)

Ion beam sputtering or ion beam deposition (IBD) requires an ion beam which is facing a target. The resulting ion bombardment physically removes material from the target which is deposited on the substrate surface and leads to layer growth. The low sputtering pressure and the low process temperatures enable a dense layer growth and outstanding layer properties such as refractive index and low absorption losses. The adding of reactive gases such as oxygen allows reactive ion beam sputtering of dielectric materials.

 

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DUAL ION BEAM SPUTTERING (DIBS)

By adding an additional assist ion beam source to the ion beam sputtering setup, an extra ion bombardment at the substrate can be introduced. This is used to influence the growing film or preclean the substrate before sputtering.

 

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PLASMA ENHANCED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION (PECVD)

Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is a plasma assisted reactive process to deposit thin films from a gas state (vapor) into a solid state on a substrate. This process requires pre-cursor gases, which need a plasma excitation to react into a vapor, condensing at the substrate surface. Typically, the plasma excitation is done by a RF electrode setup or microwave antenna setup. Compared to thermal CVD, the temperature during PECVD is low, because chemical reactions are activated by the plasma and not be high temperature.

 

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REACTIVE ION ETCHING (RIE)

Reactive ion etching uses reactive gases and ion bombardment for physically and chemically etching of the substrate surface. The reactive gases are ionized by a plasma excitation to etch into the substrate materials. The plasma excitation is done typically by a RF electrode or microwave antenna setup. The high reactivity allows high material selectivity, adjustable trench profile and high etch rate.

 

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MAGNETRON SPUTTERING (PVD)

Magnetron sputtering uses a cathode with a permanent magnetic field to excite a dense plasma at the cathode surface, where the target material is placed. The resulting ion bombardment physically removes target material, which is moving to the substrate surface. The adding of reactive gas such as oxygen allows reactive magnetron sputtering. Thereby dielectrics can be sputtered from a metallic target. This allows high sputtering rates together with good layer properties such as refractive index.

Different sputter setups allow a broad range of applications:

Dynamic deposition
Linear or orbital movement of the rotating substrate across rectangular magnetrons for precise multilayer coatings on large substrates.
 

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Static deposition
Single magnetron with rotating magnetic field or confocal arrangement with up to 4 magnetrons for advanced coatings on wafers.
 

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DRY CLEANING

Dry cleaning allows the removal of substrate surface contaminations in vacuum with different methods. These methods can be applied successively to optimize the cleaning results.

Vacuum desorption
where contaminants are removed from a substrate using ultra high vacuum.

Thermal desorption
utilizes heat to increase the volatility of contaminants, to remove them from the substrate. For example, water can be removed effectively by heating the substrate with infrared- or resistance heater.

Plasma treatment
uses a plasma to support the removal of the contamination. Low ion-energy oxygen plasmas help to reduce hydrocarbons or remove photoresist.

High ion-energy bombardment
introduced by a RF electrode or ion beam source physically remove the first nanometers of the substrate material e.g. native oxide on a silicon wafer.

 

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